Technologies Technology options

Alternative Waste Technologies
The following technology options are explored in the guide.

Open Windrow Composting

Composting is the simplest form of biological treatment and is suitable for the treatment of some source-segregated biological or organic / putrescible waste streams.

Clean Material Recovery Facility

A clean materials recycling facility (MRF) is suitable for the processing of dry mixed recyclables that are separated at source.

Dirty Material Recovery Facility

A dirty material recycling facility (dMRF) involves separating valuable materials from a mixed ‘dirty’ waste stream.

Landfill Gas to Energy

Landfilling is the mass disposal of waste to land under controlled circumstances. Energy can be recovered from the waste through collection of gases resulting from natural decomposition of the waste.

Mechanical Biological Treatment

MBT combines both mechanical and biological treatment methods. These will be supported by a combination of pre-treatment and sorting techniques and a selection of emissions and quality control techniques.

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the decomposition of organic waste in the absence of oxygen.


Incineration is the mass burning of waste to reduce the volume of waste and enable the production of energy in the form of electricity and/or heat.

In-Vessel Composting

In-vessel composting (IVC) is a way of accelerating the composting process within an enclosed environment.


Gasification is a thermal treatment wherein pre-treated waste is exposed to very high temperatures in an environment with little oxygen.


Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation of a substance at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen.

Plasma Gasification

Plasma gasification is a variation on gasification which uses a plasma torch/arch to produce gas.

Mechanical Heat Treatment

Mechanical Heat Treatment (MHT) involves a mechanical sorting combined with a thermal heat treatment processing.